Napkin Drawings Episode 1: Frank Starling and PV Curves

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By Mark Ard

Welcome to a new type of mnemonics I like to call “napkin drawings.” This term describes diagrams that literally look like they were drawn on a napkin, devoid of proper axis labeling. They serve to highlight a few key concepts without getting bogged down in the details. Mine are drawn on Penultimate, but you should be able to copy them to your study resources (once you understand them!).

Let’s start with one of those simple on the surface concepts that the USMLE asks 101 different ways – Frank Starling and PV Curves. (more…)

Become a First Aid Teaching Instructor!

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wewantyousmall First Aid Express is an online video course created by the Authors of First Aid for the USMLE Step 1, the world’s best-selling medical review book. It has been used by thousands of students, and we hope that it has been an essential component of your USMLE prep.

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USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3390

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Check out today’s Step 1 Qmax Question Challenge.

Know the answer? Post it below! Don’t forget to check back for an update with the correct answer and explanation (we’ll post it in the comments section below).

USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3390A 27-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician complaining of feeling “under the weather” for the past 2 weeks. Her history is remarkable only for previously diagnosed mitral valve prolapse. On examination, her temperature is 37.8°C (100°F). The patient has erythematous palms and painful, small lesions on her finger pads. The results of an ophthalmologic examination are shown in the image.

What is the most likely pathogen causing this woman’s symptoms?

A. Group B streptococcus
B. Haemophilus influenzae
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Streptococcus pyogenes
E. Streptococcus viridans

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Want to know the ‘bottom line?’ Purchase a USMLE-Rx Subscription and get many more features, more questions, and passages from First Aid, including images, references, and other facts relevant to this question.

This practice question is an actual question from the USMLE-Rx Step 1 test bank. For more USMLE Step 1 prep, subscribe to our Flash Facts and Step 1 Express video series. Score the best deal on all three products with a Step 1 Triple Play Bundle.

Score a Touchdown with First Aid / USMLE-Rx: Get $100.00 off a Step 1 Qmax Subscription!

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USMLE-Rx Step 2 Qmax Challenge #21022

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Check out today’s Step 2 CK Qmax Question Challenge.

Know the answer? Post it in the comments below! Don’t forget to check back for an update with the correct answer and explanation (we’ll post it in the comments section below).

USMLE-Rx Step 2 Qmax Challenge #21022A 2.5-year-old girl was diagnosed with a viral upper respiratory infection last week and now presents to her physician with a brassy cough and purulent airway secretions. Her parents believed that she may have croup and attempted mist therapy without success. The patient has been febrile to 39.0°C (102.2°F) for the past 24 hours and has had difficulty breathing during the past hour. Her review of systems is otherwise negative, and the mother denies that the patient has had any drooling or difficulty/pain when swallowing. Her heart rate is 92/min, blood pressure is 92/60 mm Hg, respiratory rate is 21/min, and temperature is 38.9°C (102°F). A Gram stain of secretions obtained in the office is shown in the image.

What organism is most likely responsible for this patient’s condition?

A. Anaerobic organisms
B. Moraxella catarrhalis
C. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E. Staphylococcus aureus

———————–

Want to know the ‘bottom line?’ Purchase a USMLE-Rx Subscription and get many more features, more questions, and passages from First Aid, including images, references, and other facts relevant to this question.

This practice question is an actual question from the USMLE-Rx Step 2 CK test bank. Get more Step 2 CK study help at USMLE-Rx.com.

 

USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3379

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Check out today’s Step 1 Qmax Question Challenge.

Know the answer? Post it below! Don’t forget to check back for an update with the correct answer and explanation (we’ll post it in the comments section below).

USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3379An 89-year-old woman is brought to the clinic after suffering from a number of recent minor falls and episodes of confusion. MRI of the brain reveals a mass localized to a convexity of the left hemisphere. The patient declines treatment and dies a few months later. An autopsy slide obtained from the patient’s brain lesion is shown in the image.

From which type of cell does the tumor seen here typically arise?

A. Arachnoid cells
B. Astrocytes
C. Melanocytes
D. Neurons
E. Oligodendrocytes

———————–

Want to know the ‘bottom line?’ Purchase a USMLE-Rx Subscription and get many more features, more questions, and passages from First Aid, including images, references, and other facts relevant to this question.

This practice question is an actual question from the USMLE-Rx Step 1 test bank. For more USMLE Step 1 prep, subscribe to our Flash Facts and Step 1 Express video series. Score the best deal on all three products with a Step 1 Triple Play Bundle.

USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3358

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Check out today’s Step 1 Qmax Question Challenge.

Know the answer? Post it below! Don’t forget to check back for an update with the correct answer and explanation (we’ll post it in the comments section below).

USMLE-Rx Step 1 Qmax Challenge #3358A medical student is asked to perform a cardiovascular examination on a patient. After 10 minutes of auscultation with no success, the medical student gives up and asks his resident for help. The resident puts up the patient’s anteroposterior chest radiograph (see image) and begins to explain the molecular etiology of this patient’s condition.

What is one complication that this patient is at increased risk of developing as a result of his condition?

A. Bronchiectasis
B. Heart failure
C. Mitral regurgitation
D. Pneumothorax
E. Small bowel obstruction

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Want to know the ‘bottom line?’ Purchase a USMLE-Rx Subscription and get many more features, more questions, and passages from First Aid, including images, references, and other facts relevant to this question.

This practice question is an actual question from the USMLE-Rx Step 1 test bank. For more USMLE Step 1 prep, subscribe to our Flash Facts and Step 1 Express video series. Score the best deal on all three products with a Step 1 Triple Play Bundle.

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