By Haley Masterson
To remember the ocular symptoms of Argyll-Robinson Pupil, just take the first letter of each word – ARP – and read it forwards and backwards. Forwards, you have ARP – Accommodation Reflex Present. Backwards, you have PRA – Pupillary Reflex Absent.
Usually the constriction to light is stronger than constriction to a near stimulus, but the reverse is true in the case of Argyll-Robinson pupil. Remember that “accommodation” refers to the ability of the eyes to focus on a near object. This reflex is carried out in part by pupillary constriction – so the pupils will constrict as you bring a far object into the near eye field – for example, moving your finger close to the patient’s nose. However, the “pupillary reflex” refers to the ability of the eye to constrict when exposed to a bright stimulus, such as your pen light. (more…)
By Joe Savarese
Perhaps I am the only one out there with this particular problem, but for some reason, I would always confuse the gastrointestinal tract plexuses. Like most miscellaneous Step 1 topics, I remembered the concept well when as I was reviewing it, but give me a week or two during Step 1 studying and those layers became a mess.
So here is my gift to you. Since I created this mnemonic, I have never mixed up these layers. (more…)
By Mark Ard
Welcome to a new type of mnemonics I like to call “napkin drawings.” This term describes diagrams that literally look like they were drawn on a napkin, devoid of proper axis labeling. They serve to highlight a few key concepts without getting bogged down in the details. Mine are drawn on Penultimate, but you should be able to copy them to your study resources (once you understand them!).
Let’s start with one of those simple on the surface concepts that the USMLE asks 101 different ways – Frank Starling and PV Curves. (more…)
By Michael Spinner
Cardiac arrest, defined by the loss of functional circulation, is a true medical emergency that may rapidly progress to death if not addressed immediately.
Emergent stabilizing measures include defibrillation for patients with a “shockable rhythm” (i.e. ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia) and immediate CPR and epinephrine for patients with a “non-shockable rhythm” (i.e. asystole or pulseless electrical activity).
After calling a code and initiating these emergent stabilizing measures, the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) program states that healthcare providers should assess for any potentially reversible causes of the arrest and treat the patient accordingly. Remember the 5Hs and 5Ts listed below to rapidly recall the causes of cardiac arrest:
By Michael Spinner
The prognosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia may vary considerably from patient to patient. Some are treated effectively with oral antibiotics in the outpatient setting, others should be hospitalized for IV antibiotics, and the most severe cases may require ICU admission to provide ventilatory and/or hemodynamic support. Use the CURB-65 criteria listed below to help estimate the prognosis and determine the appropriate management for patients with community-acquired pneumonia:
C – Confusion (new change in mental status)
U – Urea >7 mmol/L
R – Respiratory rate ³30
B – Blood pressure <90 systolic or £60 diastolic
65 – Age ³65
By Molly Lewis
So many wrist bones, so little time- how to remember them all? Try these mnemonics!
There are about a million mnemonics out there for the bones of your wrist (AKA carpals), some with higher moral standards than others :). Here are two to get you started:
By Michael Spinner
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem among hospitalized patients with numerous etiologies. Common causes include volume depletion or renal hypoperfusion (prerenal), ATN from ischemia or nephrotoxins (intrinsic), and urinary obstruction (postrenal). For all of these etiologies, the final common pathway is an acute decline in the GFR, resulting in elevation of serum BUN and creatinine and often a decline in urine output. In most cases, patients with AKI recover with treatment of the underlying cause (e.g. IV fluids for prerenal azotemia). In some cases, however, prompt treatment with dialysis is warranted. Use the mnemonic below to remember the indications for dialysis in patients with AKI: